When it comes to yarns, the yarn count is necessarily one of the highlighted terms. This term is used to express how thin or thick the yarn is, and it has great importance. The thinness and thickness of the yarn indicate what kind of fabric is suitable for use. There are basically two systems that are used to indicate this value. These are direct and indirect systems. In the direct system, the unit length weight is calculated and is usually expressed as either Tex or Denier. The indirect systems are calculated as the length of the unit weight and expressed as Nm or Ne. The calculation of each parameter is different. Direct systems are directly proportional to the thickness of the yarn, whereas indirect systems are inversely proportional. Knowing this distinction is of great importance in order to make the right yarn choice. Yarn factors give each yarn a count based on a particular system. Even single and double numbers are carefully selected to express the thickness and fineness of the rope. In this article, we discuss in detail what each value means.

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ToggleYarn count is a numerical expression that refers to how thin or thick the yarn is. By definition, it is also summarized as the mass of the yarn in units of length. Yarn count is of great importance because it is effective in determining the basic properties of the yarn. In the production of a textile product or in the combination of fabrics, yarns play a large role, so the use of the right thickness of rope is one of the most basic requirements. For this reason, knowing what the number means is very important in the selection of yarn. This number is expressed by different parameters, such as Tex or Denye. Large values are used to express thicker yarn. In the yarns expressed by Ne and Nm values, which are another type of parameter, there is the opposite logic. As the value increases, a thinner yarn is expressed. For example, a yarn with a value of 50 is thinner than a yarn with a value of 20.

Yarn count can be measured as direct or indirect in the analytical system. In the direct system, the weight of the yarn unit length is calculated, so the yarn size is directly proportional to the measurement number. So, a higher value is used to express a thicker yarn. For yarns such as silk and jute, this system is preferred and is expressed as Tex or Denier.

Tex refers to the weight of a yarn in grams, in which the length is constant, like 1000 meters. This method is one of the universal yarn counting processes. For example, a rope with a 30 tex rope thickness means it weighs 1000 grams per 30 meters. Denier refers to the weight of 9000 meters of yarn in grams.

The indirect system refers to the length of the yarn in the unit of weight and is therefore inversely proportional to the measurement number. Larger values in this system indicate a thinner rope structure. The Cotton count is indicated by Ne it is and refers to the length of the rope weighing 1 lb. Another parameter is indicated by the metric count, Nm. 1 refers to how many hanks the yarn weight contains in 1000 meters. Because these values are inversely proportional, 40 Nm is used to refer to a string thinner than 20 Nm.

There are many different numbering systems used to determine the yarn number correctly, and these systems are divided into two categories, direct and indirect. Tex, Denier, and Jute systems are direct counting systems, while English, Metric, and Worsted systems are called indirect systems. These types of numbering and how they are calculated are as follows.

- English system: Means the number of hanks (840yds) per pound. Mathematically, N = length (yds) /840 yds (hanks) x 1 pound/weight
- Tex: Every 1000 meters of yarn is expressed in grams. Mathematically, Tex = Weight (gm) /1 gm x 1000m/Length (m)
- Denier: Means the weight of every 9000 meters of yarn in grams. Mathematically, Denier = Weight (gm) /1gm x 9000m/Length

The jute system is the expression of the weight of 14400 yards of yarn in pounds. Mathematically, Spindle = Weight (pound) /1 1 pound x 14400 yds /Length (yds) - Worsted system: It refers to the number of hanks (560 yds) per pound. Mathematically, Worsted count = length (yds) /560 (yds) x 1 Pound / Weight (pound)
- Metric system: refers to the number of hanks per 1 kg. Mathematically, Nm = length (m) /1000m x 1 kg/Weight (kg)

Hank is a knotted form of a group of yarns. This length is not defined by certain standards, but it will not be wrong to make a fusion field analogy. 20 hanks are about 168 football fields and measure 1 pound in weight. In general, hank length differs according to the type of yarn used, its thickness, and the techniques used.

Which system to use when calculating the yarn count depends on a number of criteria. In general, the parameters Tex, Denier, Nm, or Ne are preferred to express this value. Tex and Denier, a direct measuring system, are the most commonly used parameters. Which parameter to choose varies according to industry standards, yarn type, or regional textile applications. Usually, the Tex system is preferred in technical textiles, while Denier determines the value of filament yarns. Ne falls into the category of indirect systems and is an ideal choice for expressing the thickness of cotton yarns, while Nm is ideal for expressing the thickness of natural fibers such as wool.

It is also important whether the value given in the yarn numbers is expressed in odd or even numbers. As is known, the yarn recommendations expressed by Tex and Denier are directly proportional to the yarn thickness. As the value grows, so does the thickness. Inversely proportional to yarn counsels expressed in Nm and Ne. Odd-numbered numbers represent yarns that are thinner and lighter in structure. Even-numbered numbers are used for thicker and more durable yarns. Knowing this distinction is very important for the correct choice of clothing because it is possible to understand the thickness of the string not only from the specified parameter but also from the value given in even or odd.

It is possible to convert between Tex, Denier, and Ne commonly used measuring parameters. It is quite easy to convert to the desired unit by applying a certain set of formulas. The formulas that can be followed for this conversion are listed below.

- “Denier = Tex X 9” formula is used to convert Tex to Denier.
- “Tex = Denier / 9” formula is used to convert Denier to Tex.
- “Tex = 590.5 / Ne” formula is used to convert Ne to Tex.
- “Ne = 590.5 / Tex” formula is used to convert Tex to Ne.
- “Ne = 5315 / Denier” formula is used to convert Denier to Ne.
- Lastly, “Denier = 5315 / Ne” formula is used to convert Ne to Denier.

These formulas make it easier for you to convert on paper, but the yarn count can be expressed in many different units. It will also be useful to use websites prepared for this in order to make the conversion more comprehensive.

I graduated from Bursa Uludağ University Textile Engineering Department in 2017. I have been working as a management engineer at EMATEKS since 2018.

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